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GRE数学词汇汇总

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小G君 2019-11-08
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GRE数学是我们的中国考生的拿手好戏,考试难度只有高中数学的难度,通常是考G同学们的满分冲刺对象。

但是!数学知识点简单,当他们用英语表达出来的时候,你还认识他们本来的模样吗?  数学可以,单词不行的童鞋,戳中你的膝盖了吗?

为大家准备了GRE数学专有名词的英文表达,快点收藏起来,学习吧!

 

1.数学符号 Mathematical symbols

等于:equal to, thae same as, is 

不等:>more than

<less than

>= no less than

<= no more than

加: add, plus, more than, sum

减: minus, subtract( to take away by or as if by deducting ), less than, difference

乘: multiply, times, product(the number or expression resulting from the multiplication together of two or more numbers or expressions)

除:divide, quotient(the number resulting from the division of one number by another)

绝对值: absolute value

平方: square

立方: cube

开平方: square root

开立方: cube root

平行: parallel to

垂直: perpendicular to(a : standing at right angles to the plane of the horizon : exactly upright b : being at right angles to a given line or plane)

 

2.数字前缀

1--uni, mono

2--bi, du, di

3--tri, ter

4--tetra, quad

5--penta, quint

6--hex, sex

7--sept, hapta

8--oct

9--enn

10--dec, deka

 

3.方程和函数

方程 equation

一元二次方程 quadratic(involving terms of the second degree at most) equations

多元一次方程组 simultaneous(satisfied by the same values of the variables) linear equations

二元二次方程组 simultaneous quadratic equations

solution, root, zero

变量 variable

常量(数) constant(something invariable or unchanging)

term

系数 coefficient(any of the factors of a product considered in relation to a specific factor especially : a constant factor of a term as distinguished from a variable)

函数 function

 

4.数列和集合

等差数列 arithmetic(a branch of mathematics that deals usually with the nonnegative real numbers including sometimes the transfinite cardinals and with the application of the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to them) progression

等比数列 geometric(a : of, relating to, or according to the methods or principles of geometry b : increasing in a geometric progression) progression

集合 set

子集 subset

序列 sequence

序列中的项 term

包含序列的首末项 inclusive

不包含序列的首末项 exclusive

 

5.排列组合与概率

排列 permutation(a : the act or process of changing the lineal order of an ordered set of objects b : an ordered arrangement of a set of objects)

组合 combination(an ordered sequence: as a : a sequence of letters or numbers chosen in setting a lock also : the mechanism operating or moved by the sequence b : a rapid sequence of punches in boxing c : any subset of a set considered without regard to order within the subset)

概率 probability, possibility

 

6.数论 number theory

数字 digit

奇数 odd number

偶数 even number

整数 integer, whole number

正整数 positive integer

连续整数 consecutive(following one after the other in order) integer

自然数 natural number

非零数 nonzero

正数 positive number

负数 negative number

有理数 rational(involving only multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction and only a finite number of times)

无理数 irrational(a number that can be expressed as an infinite decimal with no set of consecutive digits repeating itself indefinitely and that cannot be expressed as the quotient of two integers)

实数 real number

addition

合数 composite(made up of distinct parts) number

质数 prime number

因子 factor, divisor

公因子 common factor

质因数 prime factor

公约数 common divisior

最大公约数 the greatest common divisor GCD

公倍数 common multiple

最小公倍数 the least common multiple LCM

multiply

乘数 multiplier

几倍 times

A是B的两倍 twice as many A as B

A是B的3/2倍 3/2 as many A as B

A比B多20%,(A-B)/B=20%A is 20% more than B

除以 divide

除数 divisor

quotient(the number resulting from the division of one number by another)

余数 remainder

整除 divisibility

可整除的 divisible by, evenly divisible

小数 decimals(numbered or proceeding by tens: a : based on the number 10 especially : expressed in or utilizing a decimal system especially with a decimal point b : subdivided into 10th or 100th units)

小数点 decimal point

分数 fractions(a numerical representation (as 3/4, 5/8, or 3.234) indicating the quotient of two numbers)

循环小数 reccuring decimal

有限小数 terminating decimal

分子 numerator(the part of a fraction that is above the line and signifies the number to be divided by the denominator)

分母 denominator(the part of a fraction that is below the line and that functions as the divisor of the numerator)

真分数 proper faction

假分数 improper fraction

带分数 mixed number

个位数 units' digit

十位数 tens' digit

百位数 hundreds' digit

两位数 2-digit number

十进制 decimalism, decimal notation, an integer in base 10 notation

十分位 tenth, tenths' digit

 

7.单利、复利和价格

单利 simple interest

复利 compound interest

成本 cost

折扣 discount

预付定金;分期付款 down payment(a part of the full price paid at the time of purchase or delivery with the balance to be paid later broadly : the first step in a process)

利率 interst rate

标价 list price

差额 margin

涨价 mark up

降价 mark down

毛利 markup( an amount added to the cost price to determine the selling price broadly)

利润 profit

购买价 purchasing price

零售价 retail value

销售价 sale price

折旧 depreciation(to lower the price or estimated value of )

 

8.代数 algebra

算术平均数 arithmetic mean

几何平均数 geometric mean

平均数 average

中位数 median

众数 mode

期望 expectation

偏差 deviation

方差 variance

标准差 standard deviation

范围 range

底数 base

近似 closest approximation

降低后的 reduced

下降后的 decreased

...下降到... decrease...to...

下降了 decrease by...

增加后的 increased

...增加到... increase...to...

增加了... increase by...

定义 define

表示,代表 denote(to serve as an indication of )

不同的 distinct

表达式 expression

...表达 in terms of

最小值 minimum, least possible

最大值 maximum

人均 per capita(equally to each individual)

指数 power

正比于 proportional to

比率 ratio

倒数 reciprocal(either of a pair of numbers (as 2/3 and 3/2 or 9 and 1/9) whose product is one broadly)

四舍五入到十分位 rounded(to express as a round number ― often used with off <11.3572 rounded off to two decimal places becomes 11.36>) to the nearest tenth

连续的 successive, in a row

平局 tie

两个数字 two digits

 

9.几何 geometry

坐标 coordinate(a : any of a set of numbers used in specifying the location of a point on a line, on a surface, or in space b : any one of a set of variables used in specifying the state of a substance or the motion of a particle or momentum)

横坐标 abscissa(the horizontal coordinate of a point in a plane Cartesian coordinate system obtained by measuring parallel to the x-axis)

纵坐标 ordinate(the Cartesian coordinate obtained by measuring parallel to the y-axis)

解析几何 coordinate geometry

斜率 slope

y轴截距 y-intercept

数轴 number lines

象限 quadrant

角度 degree

锐角 acute(characterized by sharpness or severity ) angle

直角 right angle

钝角 obtuse(not pointed or acute ) angle

顶角 vertex(vertices) angle

平角 straight angle

平分 bisect

角平分线 angle bisector(e that bisects especially : a straight line that bisects an angle or a line segment)

正北方 due(DIRECTLY, EXACTLY) north

长度 length

高度 altitude, height

大小,维度 dimension( a (1) : measure in one direction specifically : one of three coordinates determining a position in space or four coordinates determining a position in space and time (2) : one of a group of properties whose number is necessary and sufficient to determine uniquely each element of a system of usually mathematical entities (as an aggregate of points in real or abstract space) <the surface of a sphere has two dimensions> also : a parameter or coordinate variable assigned to such a property <the three dimensions of momentum> (3) : the number of elements in a basis of a vector space b : the quality of spatial extension : MAGNITUDE, SIZE c : a lifelike or realistic quality d : the range over which or the degree to which something extends : SCOPE ― usually used in plural e : one of the elements or factors making up a complete personality or entity : ASPECT)

周长 perimeter(a : the boundary of a closed plane figure b : the length of a perimeter )

面积 area

距离 distance

直线 line

线段 segment(the finite part of a line between two points in the line)

中点 mid point

相交 intersect(to meet and cross at a point )

平行线 parallel lines

垂直线 perpendicular(a : standing at right angles to the plane of the horizon : exactly upright b : being at right angles to a given line or plane) lines

arc(degree measurement on the circumference of a circle ― used especially in the phrase of arc <11 minutes 3 seconds of arc>)

弧度(弧长/半径) radian(a unit of plane angular measurement that is equal to the angle at the center of a circle subtended by an arc whose length equals the radius or approximately 57.3 degrees)

中心 center

circle

圆周长 circumference( the perimeter of a circle )

半径 radius( a line segment extending from the center of a circle or sphere to the circumference or bounding surface )

直径 diameter(the length of a straight line through the center of an object )

内切 inscribe(to draw within a figure so as to touch in as many places as possible )

外接 circumscribe(a : to draw a line around b : to surround by or as if by a boundary )

切线 tangent(meeting a curve or surface in a single point if a sufficiently small interval is considered )

顺时针 clockwise

逆时针 counterclockwise(in a direction opposite to that in which the hands of a clock rotate as viewed from in front)

同心圆 concentric (having a common center)circle

对角线 diagonal( joining two vertices of a rectilinear figure that are nonadjacent or two vertices of a polyhedral figure that are not in the same face)

三角形 triangle

直角三角形 right triangle

斜边 hypotenuse(the side of a right-angled triangle that is opposite the right angle)

等腰三角形 isosceles(having two equal sides ) triangle

等边三角形 equilateral( having all sides equal ) triangle

三角形的中线 median of a triangle

四边形 quadrilateral(a polygon of four sides)

平行四边形 parallelogram(a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel and equal)

长方形 rectangle

正方形 square

梯形 trapezoid

五边形 pentagon(a polygon of five angles and five sides)

六边形 hexagon(a polygon of six angles and six sides)

八边形 octagon(a polygon of eight angles and eight sides)

十边形 decagon(a plane polygon of 10 angles and 10 sides)

多边形 polygon

正多边形 regular polygon

全等的 congruent(congruous,being in agreement, harmony, or correspondence)

face

side

平面 plane

交叠 overlap(to extend over or past and cover a part of )

正方体 cube

长方体 rectangular solid

圆柱 cylinder(the surface traced by a straight line moving parallel to a fixed straight line and intersecting a fixed planar closed curve )

圆锥 cone

sphere

表面积 surface area

体积 volume

 


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