Many objects in daily use have clearly been influenced by science, but their form and function, their dimensions and appearance, were determined by technologists, artisans, designers, inventors, and engineers—using non-scientific modes of thought. Many features and qualities of the objects that a technologist thinks about cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in the mind by a visual, nonverbal process. In the development of Western technology, it has been non-verbal thinking, by and large, that has fixed the outlines and filled in the details of our material surroundings. Pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets exist not because of geometry or thermodynamics, but because they were first a picture in the minds of those who built them.
The creative shaping process of a technologist’s mind can be seen in nearly every artifact that exists. For example, in designing a diesel engine , a technologist might impress individual ways of nonverbal thinking on the machine by continually using an intuitive sense of rightness and fitness. What would be the shape of the combustion chamber Where should the valves be placed? Should it have a long or short piston? Such questions have a range of answers that are supplied by experience, by physical requirements, by limitations of available space, and not least by a sense of form. Some decisions, such as wall thickness and pin diameter, may depend on scientific calculations, but the nonscientific component of design remains primary.
Design courses, then, should be an essential element in engineering curricula. Nonverbal thinking, a central mechanism in engineering design, involves perceptions, the stock-in-trade (stock-in-tradeof the artist, not the scientist. Because perceptive processes are not assumed to entail “hard thinking,” nonverbal thought is sometimes seen as a primitive stage in the development of cognitive processes and inferior to verbal or mathematical thought. But it is paradoxical that when the staff of the Historic American Engineering Record wished to have drawings made of machines and isometric views of industrial processes for its historical record of American engineering, the only college students with the requisite abilities were not engineering students, but rather students attending architectural schools.
If courses in design, which in a strongly analytical engineering curriculum provide the background required for practical problem-solving, are not provided, we can expect to encounter silly but costly errors occurring in advanced engineering systems. For example, early models of high-speed railroad cars loaded with sophisticated controls were unable to operate in a snowstorm because a fan sucked snow into the electrical system. Absurd random failures that plague automatic control systems are not merely trivial aberrations; they are a reflection of the chaos that results when design is assumed to be primarily a problem in mathematics.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8541
T is no more than 20 percent greater than the integer x.and T is no smaller than a number 20 percent less than the integer x.If T=60,which of the following indicates the smallest possible interval for x?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8540
If x, y, and z are consecutive integers and x < y < z, which of the following must be true? Indicate all possible choices.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8539
The quadrants of the xy-plane are shown in the figure above. In the xy-plane, line m (not shown) has a positive slope and a positive x-intercept. Line m intersects which of the quadrants? Indicate all such quadrants
[数学 ]精选真题 -8538
Based on the information given, which of the following statements must be true? Indicate all such statements.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8537
Which two of the following numbers have a product that is between −1 and 0 ? Indicate both of the numbers.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8536
If the lengths of two sides of a triangle are 5 and 9, respectively, which of the following could be the length of the third side of the triangle? Indicate all such lengths.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8535
Solution X is 10 percent alcohol by volume, and solution Y is 30 percent alcohol by volume. How many milliliters of solution Y must be added to 200 milliliters of solution X to create a solution that is 25 percent alcohol by volume?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8534
What is the y-intercept of the graph of the equation y=2*|4*x-4|-10?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8533
Whenever Art Dealer sells a sculpture, he earns a 20 percent commission on the first $12,000 of the sale price plus 15 percent of the sale price in excess of $12,000. If Art earned a $3,900 commission on the sale of a certain sculpture, what was the sale price?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8532
Pump A can empty a pool in A minutes, and pump B can empty the same pool in B minutes. Pump A begins emptying the pool for 1 minute before pump B joins. Beginning from the time pump A starts, how many minutes will it take to empty the pool?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8531
S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7, 8},the number of 4-member subsets of S
[数学 ]精选真题 -8530
A company plans to manufacture two types of hammers, type R and type S. The cost of manufacturing each hammer of type S is $0.05 less than twice the cost of manufacturing each hammer of type R.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8529
Each of the following linear equations defines y as a function of x for all integers x from 1 to 100. For which of the following equations is the standard deviation of the y-values corresponding to all the x-values the greatest?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8528
The greatest of the 21 positive integers in a certain list is 16. The median of the 21 integers is 10. What is the least possible average (arithmetic mean) of the 21 integers?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8527
If 10^x equals 0.1 percent of 10^y , where x and y are integers, which of the following must be true?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8526
Which of the following functions f defined for all numbers x has the property that f (–x) = –f (x) for all numbers x ?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8525
The area of circle W is 16*π and the area of circle Z is 4*π. What is the ratio of the circumference of W to the circumference of Z ?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8524
For each year, the work time, in hours, required to pay for a food item is the average price of the food item divided by the average hourly wage for rank-and-file manufacturing workers. The work time in the graph is given in minutes.If the average hourly wage of the rank-and-file manufacturing worker in 1919 was $0.55, which of the following is closest to the average price of 12 gallon of milk in 1919?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8523
The interior dimensions of a rectangular tank are as follows: length 110 centimeters, width 90 centimeters, and height 270 centimeters. The tank rests on level ground. Based on the assumption that the volume of water increases by 10 percent when it freezes, which of the following is closest to the maximum height, in centimeters, to which the tank can be filled with water so that when the water freezes, the ice would not rise above the top of the tank?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8522
Which of the following is closest to
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