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Many objects in daily use have clearly been influenced by science, but their form and function, their dimensions and appearance, were determined by technologists, artisans, designers, inventors, and engineers—using non-scientific modes of thought. Many features and qualities of the objects that a technologist thinks about cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in the mind by a visual, nonverbal process. In the development of Western technology, it has been non-verbal thinking, by and large, that has fixed the outlines and filled in the details of our material surroundings. Pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets exist not because of geometry or thermodynamics, but because they were first a picture in the minds of those who built them.
The creative shaping process of a technologist’s mind can be seen in nearly every artifact that exists. For example, in designing a diesel engine , a technologist might impress individual ways of nonverbal thinking on the machine by continually using an intuitive sense of rightness and fitness. What would be the shape of the combustion chamber Where should the valves be placed? Should it have a long or short piston? Such questions have a range of answers that are supplied by experience, by physical requirements, by limitations of available space, and not least by a sense of form. Some decisions, such as wall thickness and pin diameter, may depend on scientific calculations, but the nonscientific component of design remains primary.
Design courses, then, should be an essential element in engineering curricula. Nonverbal thinking, a central mechanism in engineering design, involves perceptions, the stock-in-trade (stock-in-tradeof the artist, not the scientist. Because perceptive processes are not assumed to entail “hard thinking,” nonverbal thought is sometimes seen as a primitive stage in the development of cognitive processes and inferior to verbal or mathematical thought. But it is paradoxical that when the staff of the Historic American Engineering Record wished to have drawings made of machines and isometric views of industrial processes for its historical record of American engineering, the only college students with the requisite abilities were not engineering students, but rather students attending architectural schools.
If courses in design, which in a strongly analytical engineering curriculum provide the background required for practical problem-solving, are not provided, we can expect to encounter silly but costly errors occurring in advanced engineering systems. For example, early models of high-speed railroad cars loaded with sophisticated controls were unable to operate in a snowstorm because a fan sucked snow into the electrical system. Absurd random failures that plague automatic control systems are not merely trivial aberrations; they are a reflection of the chaos that results when design is assumed to be primarily a problem in mathematics.
[数学 ]猴哥112 -8832
WEATHER FORECAST FOR NOVEMBER 24
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8830
Which of the following statements best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8831
In the context in which it appears, “formula” most nearly means
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8829
The passage implies which of the following about the introduction of floral-patterned rugs in Timurid royal courts?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8828
According to the passage, after the 1440s, Timurid paintings of court scenes
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8827
Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the argument?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8826
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8825
With which of the following statements about Impressionist painting would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8824
The “tradition” refers to the
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8823
The primary purpose of the passage is to
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8822
The passage is primarily concerned with
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8821
The “hypothesis” implies that compared to marine invertebrate larvae that subsist on stored nutrients, marine invertebrate larvae that feed are less likely to
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8820
The passage suggests that the “bryozoan,” the “barnacle species,” and “Capitella worms” all share which of the following characteristics?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8819
It can be inferred from the passage that if Keay’s proposed explanation of meteor sounds is correct, it is true that
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8818
The passage suggests that Keay formulated his hypothesis in response to
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8817
Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8816
According to the passage, the disappearance after 1993 of known evening bat roosts in buildings suggests which of the following?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8815
The author mentions the fact that evening bats radio-tracked since 1993 have roosted in trees primarily in order to
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8814
According to the passage, payments to wage laborers in the early United States were
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8813
The passage suggests which of the following about records of payments for outwork?