A “scientistic” view of language was dominant among philosophers and linguists who affected to develop a scientific analysis of human thought and behavior in the early part of this century. Under the force of this view, it was perhaps inevitable that the art of rhetoric should pass from the status of being regarded as of questionable worth (because although it might be both a source of pleasure and a means to urge people to right action, it might also be a means to distort truth and a source of misguided action) to the status of being wholly condemned. If people are regarded only as machines guided by logic, as they were by these “scientistic” thinkers, rhetoric is likely to be held in low regard; for the most obvious truth about rhetoric is that it speaks to the whole person. It presents its arguments first to the person as a rational being, because persuasive discourse, if honestly conceived, always has a basis in reasoning. Logical argument is the plot, as it were of any speech or essay that is respectfully intended to persuade people. Yet it is a characterizing feature of rhetoric that it goes beyond this and appeals to the parts of our nature that are involved in feeling, desiring, acting, and suffering. It recalls relevant instances of the emotional reactions of people to circumstances—real or fictional—that are similar to our own circumstances. Such is the purpose of both historical accounts and fables in persuasive discourse: they indicate literally or symbolically how people may react emotionally, with hope or fear, to particular circumstances. A speech attempting to persuade people can achieve little unless it takes into account the aspect of their being related to such hopes and fears.
Rhetoric, then, is addressed to human beings living at particular times and in particular places. From the point of view of rhetoric, we are not merely logical thinking machines, creatures abstracted from time and space. The study of rhetoric should therefore be considered the most humanistic of the humanities, since rhetoric is not directed only to our rational selves. It takes into account what the “scientistic” view leaves out. If it is a weakness to harbor feelings, then rhetoric may be thought of as dealing in weakness. But those who reject the idea of rhetoric because they believe it deals in lies and who at the same time hope to move people to action, must either be liars themselves or be very naive; pure logic has never been a motivating force unless it has been subordinated to human purposes, feelings, and desires, and thereby ceased to be pure logic.
(A) It is a sterile, abstract discipline, of little use in real life.
(B) It is an essential element of persuasive discourse, but only one such element.
(C) It is an important means of persuading people to act against their desires.
(D) It is the lowest order of discourse because it is the least imaginative.
(E) It is essential to persuasive discourse because it deals with universal truths.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8541
T is no more than 20 percent greater than the integer x.and T is no smaller than a number 20 percent less than the integer x.If T=60,which of the following indicates the smallest possible interval for x?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8540
If x, y, and z are consecutive integers and x < y < z, which of the following must be true? Indicate all possible choices.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8539
The quadrants of the xy-plane are shown in the figure above. In the xy-plane, line m (not shown) has a positive slope and a positive x-intercept. Line m intersects which of the quadrants? Indicate all such quadrants
[数学 ]精选真题 -8538
Based on the information given, which of the following statements must be true? Indicate all such statements.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8537
Which two of the following numbers have a product that is between −1 and 0 ? Indicate both of the numbers.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8536
If the lengths of two sides of a triangle are 5 and 9, respectively, which of the following could be the length of the third side of the triangle? Indicate all such lengths.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8535
Solution X is 10 percent alcohol by volume, and solution Y is 30 percent alcohol by volume. How many milliliters of solution Y must be added to 200 milliliters of solution X to create a solution that is 25 percent alcohol by volume?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8534
What is the y-intercept of the graph of the equation y=2*|4*x-4|-10?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8533
Whenever Art Dealer sells a sculpture, he earns a 20 percent commission on the first $12,000 of the sale price plus 15 percent of the sale price in excess of $12,000. If Art earned a $3,900 commission on the sale of a certain sculpture, what was the sale price?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8532
Pump A can empty a pool in A minutes, and pump B can empty the same pool in B minutes. Pump A begins emptying the pool for 1 minute before pump B joins. Beginning from the time pump A starts, how many minutes will it take to empty the pool?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8531
S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7, 8},the number of 4-member subsets of S
[数学 ]精选真题 -8530
A company plans to manufacture two types of hammers, type R and type S. The cost of manufacturing each hammer of type S is $0.05 less than twice the cost of manufacturing each hammer of type R.
[数学 ]精选真题 -8529
Each of the following linear equations defines y as a function of x for all integers x from 1 to 100. For which of the following equations is the standard deviation of the y-values corresponding to all the x-values the greatest?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8528
The greatest of the 21 positive integers in a certain list is 16. The median of the 21 integers is 10. What is the least possible average (arithmetic mean) of the 21 integers?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8527
If 10^x equals 0.1 percent of 10^y , where x and y are integers, which of the following must be true?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8526
Which of the following functions f defined for all numbers x has the property that f (–x) = –f (x) for all numbers x ?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8525
The area of circle W is 16*π and the area of circle Z is 4*π. What is the ratio of the circumference of W to the circumference of Z ?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8524
For each year, the work time, in hours, required to pay for a food item is the average price of the food item divided by the average hourly wage for rank-and-file manufacturing workers. The work time in the graph is given in minutes.If the average hourly wage of the rank-and-file manufacturing worker in 1919 was $0.55, which of the following is closest to the average price of 12 gallon of milk in 1919?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8523
The interior dimensions of a rectangular tank are as follows: length 110 centimeters, width 90 centimeters, and height 270 centimeters. The tank rests on level ground. Based on the assumption that the volume of water increases by 10 percent when it freezes, which of the following is closest to the maximum height, in centimeters, to which the tank can be filled with water so that when the water freezes, the ice would not rise above the top of the tank?
[数学 ]精选真题 -8522
Which of the following is closest to
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