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A “scientistic” view of language was dominant among philosophers and linguists who affected to develop a scientific analysis of human thought and behavior in the early part of this century. Under the force of this view, it was perhaps inevitable that the art of rhetoric should pass from the status of being regarded as of questionable worth (because although it might be both a source of pleasure and a means to urge people to right action, it might also be a means to distort truth and a source of misguided action) to the status of being wholly condemned. If people are regarded only as machines guided by logic, as they were by these “scientistic” thinkers, rhetoric is likely to be held in low regard; for the most obvious truth about rhetoric is that it speaks to the whole person. It presents its arguments first to the person as a rational being, because persuasive discourse, if honestly conceived, always has a basis in reasoning. Logical argument is the plot, as it were of any speech or essay that is respectfully intended to persuade people. Yet it is a characterizing feature of rhetoric that it goes beyond this and appeals to the parts of our nature that are involved in feeling, desiring, acting, and suffering. It recalls relevant instances of the emotional reactions of people to circumstances—real or fictional—that are similar to our own circumstances. Such is the purpose of both historical accounts and fables in persuasive discourse: they indicate literally or symbolically how people may react emotionally, with hope or fear, to particular circumstances. A speech attempting to persuade people can achieve little unless it takes into account the aspect of their being related to such hopes and fears.
Rhetoric, then, is addressed to human beings living at particular times and in particular places. From the point of view of rhetoric, we are not merely logical thinking machines, creatures abstracted from time and space. The study of rhetoric should therefore be considered the most humanistic of the humanities, since rhetoric is not directed only to our rational selves. It takes into account what the “scientistic” view leaves out. If it is a weakness to harbor feelings, then rhetoric may be thought of as dealing in weakness. But those who reject the idea of rhetoric because they believe it deals in lies and who at the same time hope to move people to action, must either be liars themselves or be very naive; pure logic has never been a motivating force unless it has been subordinated to human purposes, feelings, and desires, and thereby ceased to be pure logic.
(A) It is a sterile, abstract discipline, of little use in real life.
(B) It is an essential element of persuasive discourse, but only one such element.
(C) It is an important means of persuading people to act against their desires.
(D) It is the lowest order of discourse because it is the least imaginative.
(E) It is essential to persuasive discourse because it deals with universal truths.
[数学 ]猴哥112 -8832
WEATHER FORECAST FOR NOVEMBER 24
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8830
Which of the following statements best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8831
In the context in which it appears, “formula” most nearly means
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8829
The passage implies which of the following about the introduction of floral-patterned rugs in Timurid royal courts?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8828
According to the passage, after the 1440s, Timurid paintings of court scenes
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8827
Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the argument?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8826
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8825
With which of the following statements about Impressionist painting would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8824
The “tradition” refers to the
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8823
The primary purpose of the passage is to
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8822
The passage is primarily concerned with
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8821
The “hypothesis” implies that compared to marine invertebrate larvae that subsist on stored nutrients, marine invertebrate larvae that feed are less likely to
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8820
The passage suggests that the “bryozoan,” the “barnacle species,” and “Capitella worms” all share which of the following characteristics?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8819
It can be inferred from the passage that if Keay’s proposed explanation of meteor sounds is correct, it is true that
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8818
The passage suggests that Keay formulated his hypothesis in response to
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8817
Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8816
According to the passage, the disappearance after 1993 of known evening bat roosts in buildings suggests which of the following?
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8815
The author mentions the fact that evening bats radio-tracked since 1993 have roosted in trees primarily in order to
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8814
According to the passage, payments to wage laborers in the early United States were
[阅读&逻辑 ]经典真题260篇 -8813
The passage suggests which of the following about records of payments for outwork?