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Though great gains in membership, particularly among women, as well as success in gaining concessions from employers over working conditions and wages, characterized many United States labor unions during the First World War, by the postwar years of 1919 1921, many of these gains had begun to be undermined. Especially signifificant, then, is the story of consolidation and increase in power after the war by Local 36 of the International Laundry Workers' Union, whose members were primarily Black women.
On May 29, 1918 Local 36 struck all seven laundries in Little Rock, Arkansas. The case was referred to the National War Labor Board (NWLB), which ruled in favor ofLocal 36 Most of the laundry owners attempted to undermine the terms of the ruling by delaying or complicating its implementation. New hearings were held in May 1919, and again the NWLB decided in favor of the union By then, however, the NWLB- which had never held the power of enforcement—had lost even the persuasive advantage it had been able to employ during the war, and it regretfully informed the workers that they were on their own The laundry workers chose to continue the fifight Local 36 declared a strike at the Fame Laundry, the worst offffender among the city's laundries, and sued its owner to prevent him from using the treasured union label; the union's action inspired a citywide boycott. On June 27, Local 36 announced that it intended to open a cooperative laundry. The cooperative flflourished, and the Fame Laundry went out of business.
Local 36's achievements during the war were facilitated by several factors. Because their work was essential to the military installations surrounding the city, the laundry workers' cause received immediate publicity and was quickly referred to the NWLB. Because several issues raised by Local 36's situation fifit unusually well with the NWLB's concerns (for example, the recognition of workers' right to a wage on which they could live, and the principle of equal pay for equal work, regardless of race or gender), the workers received a great deal of institutional support, as well as the favorable ruling.
But it was the solidarity maintained by the laundry workers, both Black and White, that was responsible for their union's continuing success. Whereas after the war many United States labor organizations lost the feeling of community generated during the period of national crisis, Local 36 remained a singularly effffective experiment in interracial cooperation. These women sustained their initiative and commitment through a four-year period, during which they mobilized an impressive community network. They demonstrated their determination by repeatedly threatening to strike. Finally, by going into business for themselves, this group of historically disempowered workers displayed the flflexibility and creativity necessary to provide themselves with steady, well compensated employment and improved working conditions.
[填空 ]冲分救命题 -9341
One of the virtues of the essay collection is that it presents_____ views side by side, thereby highlighting the contentious nature of many of the arguments within the discipline.
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9340
The highlighted sentence serves primarily to
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9339
The author would most likely agree with which of the following assertions about the environmental impact of hydroelectric power plants?
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9338
The passage suggests that which of the following contributed to the erosion after the First World War of the progress previously realized by the labor movement in the United States?
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9337
According to the passage, which of the following statements about the National War Labor Board is true?
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9336
It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was one of Local 36’s grievances against the Little Rock laundry owners?
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9335
The passage is primarily concerned with discussing
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9334
According to the passage, Appalachian square dancing differs from English country dancing in that Appalachian square dancing
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9333
The passage suggests that which of the following was true of
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9332
The statements given are structured to lead to which of the following conclusions?
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9331
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply. It can be inferred that historical demographers generally believe which of the following about communities of fewer than 10,000 people in early-modern Germany?
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9330
The author suggests that according to historical demographers, the birth rate in early-modem German cities
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9329
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9328
The highlighted portion of the passage serves primarily to
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9327
According to the passage, certain African literatures have
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9326
It can be inferred from the passage that the Tea Cess Committee reorganized as the Indian Tea Market Expansion Board in order to
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9325
The passage suggests that "small packets of leaf fragments" were
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9324
In the argument in the editorial, the part that is highlighted plays which of the following roles?
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9323
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the"period of relative warmth"
[阅读&逻辑 ]冲分救命题 -9322
Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?